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国务院新闻办公室2005年1月27日新闻发布会

 2005年1月27日上午10时,教育部部长周济介绍2005年教育改革发展的新举措等方面情况,并答记者问。
  在国务院新闻办新闻发布会上的讲话

(2005年1月27日)

教育部部长 周 济


女士们、先生们:

  上午好!

  新春佳节即将来临之际,很高兴与大家再次见面。一年来,我国教育事业的改革与发展得到了全社会的热情关心和大力支持,得到了新闻界朋友的关注和厚爱,借此机会,向大家表示衷心的感谢。

  过去一年,在党中央、国务院的正确领导下,教育系统以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,围绕贯彻落实《2003-2007年教育振兴行动计划》,巩固成果,深化改革,提高质量,持续发展,各个方面的工作取得了可喜的成绩,我国教育改革和发展事业取得新的进展。一是农村义务教育得到切实的加强和推进,西部地区“两基”攻坚工作开局良好。我们坚持把农村义务教育作为整个教育工作的重中之重,集中主要精力和财力,切实推进农村义务教育的各项工作。2004年中央财政投入农村义务教育各类专项资金达到100亿元,比2003年增长了72%。“农村寄宿制学校建设工程”和“农村中小学现代远程教育工程”进展顺利。二是紧紧抓住中央8号、16号文件颁发的历史性机遇,乘势而上,切实加强和改进中小学思想道德建设和大学生思想政治教育。三是稳步扩大高等教育规模,切实提高高等教育质量。目前我国高等教育在学人数超过2000万人,高等教育毛入学率达到19%。高校哲学社会科学研究、科技创新、高新技术产业化等工作得到推进。四是以就业为导向,进一步推进了职业教育的改革和发展,职业教育为经济建设和社会发展服务的能力增强。五是坚持以人为本,着力解决人民群众关注的教育难点问题。高度重视高校毕业生就业工作;努力解决贫困家庭学生的学习和生活问题,扩大国家免费教科书的发放范围,进一步完善高校国家助学贷款政策和贫困家庭学生资助体系;大力开展中小学和幼儿园安全整治工作;全面推行“一费制”,认真治理教育乱收费,查处招生违纪行为。六是贯彻落实党的十六届四中全会精神,切实加强了教育系统队伍和领导班子建设。此外,民办教育、教育国际交流与合作和依法治教、依法行政等工作继续得到推进,取得了新的成果。

  2005年是我国推进全面建设小康社会进程的重要一年,也是继续把我国教育改革和发展事业推向前进的重要一年。做好2005年的教育工作,最重要的就是要以科学发展观统领教育工作的全局,切实贯穿于教育改革和发展的各个方面。坚持以人为本,按照“巩固、深化、提高、发展”的方针,将提高质量摆在更加突出的位置。统筹教育规模、质量、结构、效益的协调发展,统筹各级各类教育的协调发展,统筹城乡教育和区域教育的协调发展,统筹教育事业的改革、发展和稳定。研究制定《2020年中国教育发展纲要》,编制全国教育事业“十一五”规划,进一步谋划教育事业的改革和发展。


  2005年我们将重点做好以下六个方面的工作:一是继续把农村教育摆在“重中之重”的位置,下大力气加快农村教育的改革和发展,加大西部地区“两基”攻坚的力度,促进中部地区农村义务教育的巩固提高。二是切实把中央8号、16号文件和中央有关工作会议的各项要求全面落到实处,坚持学校教育“育人为本、德育为首”,全面加强和改进中小学思想道德建设和大学生思想政治教育。三是全面推动职业教育的快速发展,坚持以就业为导向,加快职业教育的改革和创新。四是稳步发展高等教育,继续推进高水平大学建设,切实提高高等教育的人才培养质量、科技创新能力和社会服务水平。五是进一步加快教育改革开放的步伐,完善教育投入机制,提高教育投资效益。六是努力促进教育公平,更好地解决教育难点问题。进一步落实对贫困家庭学生的资助和扶持政策,切实加强校园安全工作,高度重视并做好高校毕业生就业工作,加大治理教育乱收费的力度,切实纠正行业不正之风。

  小康大业,人才为本;人才培养,教育为本。教育事业关系亿万学子,涉及千家万户,教育系统的同志们深感责任重大,使命崇高。我们将在以胡锦涛同志为总书记的党中央领导下,牢固树立和认真落实科学发展观,促进各级各类教育全面、协调、可持续发展,努力办好让人民满意的教育。为全面建设小康社会、实现中华民族的伟大复兴做出新的更大的贡献。

  下面我愿意回答问题,欢迎大家提问。谢谢!


  答记者问

( 2005年1月27日 )

  [《中国日报》记者]:周部长,您好 。您刚才在讲话中提到今年要继续把农村教育摆在重中之重的位置,请问有哪些具体措施来继续推进农村教育?谢谢。


  [周济]:解放以来,特别是改革开放以来,中国的农村教育取得了很大的发展,特别是到2000年,中国基本实现了普及九年义务教育的目标,这是一个伟大的历史性成就。但是,我们也要清醒地看到,我们农村的教育和城市的教育、西部的教育和东部的教育之间还有很大的差距,所以,中央提出来要把解决“三农”问题作为全党工作的重中之重,教育战线也明确的提出来要把加强农村的教育,特别是农村的九年义务教育作为我们教育工作的重中之重。

  2003年,国务院召开了全国农村教育工作会议 ,这是建国以来第一次召开这样的会议。从那以后,我们把主要的精力和财力放在加强农村义务教育,特别是西部农村义务教育上,取得了很大的成绩。但是,我们也清醒地认识到任重而道远,这是一个光荣而艰巨的任务。

  我们今年在农村教育方面,最重要的任务还是大力推动西部“两基”攻坚任务。全国8%地区没有普及九年义务教育,全部集中在中西部地区,而这部分地区又是非常困难的地区,也是剩下的硬骨头。本届政府决心一定要在任期内完成这项任务,这也是本届政府教育方面最大的任务。西部的农村寄宿制学校的建设工程、农村义务教育工程、中小学危房改造工程和中小学现代远程教育工程,都是我们今年工作的重点。另外,我们将在中部地区的农村加大支持力度,帮助中部地区进一步巩固九年义务教育的成果,进一步提高教育质量。

  大家知道,我们国家这几年将逐步免除农业税,在这个过程当中,对县级财政会产生很大的影响,对农村的义务教育也必将产生影响。一些农业大县,特别是粮食主产县在农村义务教育的工作方面遇到了比较大的困难。中央财政将会采取一系列重要措施,巩固以县为主的管理体制,加强中部农村义务教育的工作,提高它的水平。

  我想特别强调一下,我们要进一步巩固以县为主的管理体制这个问题 。现在有一种误解,认为以县为主的管理体制就是由县级政府主要负担教育费用,这种理解是错误的。以县为主是指我们农村教育的事权、人权、财权都以县级政府为主来进行统筹管理。而事实上这并不意味着它的财政支出是由县级财政来负担的。相反,我们中西部大部分农业地区,它的农村义务教育的财政支出是由中央、省、市和县四级进行分担的,而且中央财政和省级财政将会担当更多的任务。以县为主就是要把中央和省级财政这部分转移支付的资金交由县级政府统筹管理切实落实到各个学校。事权、财权、人权的集中管理取得了很好的效果,这是我们今后相当一段时间内要推进的农村义务教育的管理体制。我们会继续巩固这个体制,还要积极地资助农村家庭经济困难的学生来接受义务教育,逐渐在全国推进家庭困难学生的“两免一补”,就是免除书本费、杂费和接受生活补助。

  从去年秋天开始,中央财政对农村的2400万义务教育阶段家庭贫困学生发放了免费教科书。今年我们在全年春季和秋季都要继续实施这样一个政策。同时,我们还要不断地加强支持的力度,来健全助学金制度,在全国范围逐渐在2007年全面实施对于20%的学生,也就是2400万农村义务教育阶段家庭贫困学生实现“两免一补”。谢谢。

  [《竞报》记者]:周部长您好,今天早上我看到一个数字,说上海市小学教师的心理疾病检出率是48%。我的问题是教育部是否会针对类似的情况,为教师队伍建立一个心理档案?此外,教育部将为缓解教师的心理压力和为青少年或者学生建立一个健康的心理环境、成长环境做出哪些措施?另外,从2004年9月份开始,实现了“一费制”,有什么实效性的进展或是成果?日前海南省已经把学校的收费作为审计的范围,我想知道教育部是否会在全国范围内推广这个措施?谢谢。

  [周济]:我先回答第一个问题,昨天我也看到这个报道。我是不太相信这个数字的,我觉得最近有些研究报告中的一些数据不太准确,研究工作不太严肃,结论有点太轻率。我前些时候还看到另外一个报道,说我们的中小学生里三分之一都有心理疾病。我觉得这种调研一是不很全面,二是结论下得太轻率。希望大家以后做研究工作的时候,要更加讲究科学、更加严肃、更加实事求是。特别是得出结论的时候,一定要严谨。

  我认为,我们整个教师队伍的心理是健康的,我们中小学生的心理也是健康的。当然,存在个别问题也是现实的,所以我们要加强心理健康教育工作。对心理健康教育的研究工作,正在不断的进行中,我们不能简单的照搬西方心理学的理论和概念。现在有些研究把我们的思想问题、心理问题和一些道德问题甚至于很多的行为问题都搅在一起,我觉得这种研究工作要特别引起注意。当然,刚才提到的问题,对于教师队伍的建设是非常重要的。应该说对于我们要搞好教育来说,教师其实是决定的因素。我们要进一步做好教育工作,就要全心全意的依靠人民教师这支队伍,要坚定不移的建设好人民教师这支队伍,这里面包括整个教师队伍的思想政治建设,也包括他们的心理健康教育。

  第二个问题,去年我们在全国的义务教育阶段的学校普遍实行了“一费制”,我觉得这是一个很大的成绩。推行“一费制”主要是为了解决教育乱收费问题,治理教育乱收费我们必须标本兼治,应该全面解决一些深层次的问题。我们去年提出来要治理好教育乱收费有两个“三管齐下”,第一个“三管”就是应该加大教育投入,规范教育的合理收费,坚决制止教育乱收费;第二个“三管”就是教育、制度、监督并举。采用这样两个“三管齐下”从根本上治理教育乱收费。通过“一费制”的推进,主要的任务就是分清楚哪些是合理收费,哪些是乱收费。把这些弄清楚之后,就可以让学校明明白白地收费,家长清清楚楚地缴费,社会明明白白地进行监督。

  这样的两个“三管齐下”带有根本性的措施,实际效果也是好的。各地教育行政部门配合其他部门一起,在各省各个地方充分征求了群众的意见,进行了听证,最后制定了“一费制”的收费标准。这些收费标准比较好地搞清了在现阶段对各个地区采用的不同的收费标准,哪些是群众能够承受的合理的收费,同时把它公之于众,接受群众的监督,应该说对于制止教育乱收费取得了很好的效果。当然,有些同志提出来,还有一些更深层次的问题,比如说择校费的问题。我认为,对于全面制止教育乱收费,在“一费制”的推进方面取得了很大成绩。今后我们还会继续推进治理教育乱收费的坚决措施,我们要坚定不移的把这个不正之风纠正过来。今年还将把治理“乱收费”作为教育工作的重点,继续在全国范围内推进、实施、落实义务教育阶段学校的“一费制”。

  我想强调一点,就是治理教育乱收费的形势是很好的,和两年以前相比,已经有了很大的进展。已经使整个教育战线的同志们进一步提高了认识、统一了思想,认识到教育乱收费损害了群众的利益,也损害了教育改革的发展,特别严重的是对孩子们的成长造成不可弥补的损害。我们对于教育乱收费是深恶痛绝的,下决心一定要把这个不正之风治理下去。我想我们有决心、有信心把这个事情搞好。

  还有一点,国家对于教育的投入,也在逐渐地增加,而且增加的速度还比较快。从这个意义上来说,也增加了我们进一步治理教育乱收费的信心和决心。

  [《第一财经日报》记者]:周部长您好,我有两个问题。第一个问题,请您透露一下2005年教育经费的投入情况,包括农村义务教育和高等教育的专项投入情况?第二个问题,目前大学生的就业形势比较严峻,据我所知网上的统计资料是,硕士研究生毕业就业的起薪低于2000元,请您透露一下教育部或者相关部门对于加强大学生就业工作的举措。

  [周济]:我先表达一个愿望,希望我们的教育投入能够有比较大的增长。2003年我出席了一个国际教育会议,100多个国家的教育部长在一起,大家对教育的情况有这样那样的认识,但是有一点是相同的,就是希望教育的投入能够更大的增加。

  中国的教育投入应该说是在不断的增长,但是,距离所需要的还有很大的差距。我们经常说,教育所面临的基本矛盾是人民群众对于优质教育资源强烈的需求和优质教育资源供给的不足,这是一个尖锐的矛盾,而且将会比较长期地存在。今年的财政预算还没有出来,要等到人民代表大会正式公布。但是,有一点我们是很高兴的,就是中央财政以及各地的财政,在预算的时候就对教育投入有一个比较大的增加。按照教育法的规定,我们每年教育财政投入应该实现三个“增长”,第一个“增长”就是用于教育的财政投入应该高于同级财政收入的增长。去年年底,财政部和教育部一起发布了一个文件,要求各地都要按照教育法的规定坚决执行,实现三个“增长”。大部分地区都是朝着这个方向在努力,我们希望今年的预算当中,特别是今年的决算当中,教育投入的增长能够超过同级政府的财政收入的增长。

  第二个问题,你提到关于大学毕业生的就业问题,我觉得这是我们大家都非常关心的问题,应该给予高度重视,认真加以解决。我们国家的高等教育在这几年当中发展是非常迅速的,这是一个非常重要的历史进步,对于我们国家实现现代化,对于我们国家的振兴,将会起到极其重要的作用。我们现在高等教育的规模还会继续得到发展,我们大学生的数量不是多了,而是还不够。

  大家都知道,人才是第一资源,综合国力的竞争最终还是人才的竞争。我们培养的人才的数量和质量直接决定着我们现代化的进程,直接决定着我们国家将来的发展。应该说现在真正需要就业的岗位是很多的,而找不到很多的人去就业。同时,毕业生的数量是很大的,但是他们又找不到合适的岗位去就业,这当中的矛盾是非常深层次的问题。我们不能因为这个问题很困难、很复杂,牵扯到人事制度、分配制度等方面的问题,就不去正视它、解决它。相反,我们现在对于大学生的就业问题给予了高度的重视,应该说在过去几年当中,就业的问题已经完成了从原来的计划经济体制走向市场经济体制的过渡,我们已经基本建立起了一整套关于大学毕业生就业的完善的体制和机制。

  当然,解决这个问题最根本的决定性因素是经济的发展,我们对这点有着深切的体会。应该说在过去几年中,之所以研究生的就业问题解决得比较好,跟我们的经济快速发展有着很密切的关系。可以预见,今后几年中国的经济还会继续稳步发展,根据人才需求市场的预测,应该说接收毕业生的市场情况还是比较好的,为我们做好这项工作树立了信心。另外一个方面,在国务院领导下各个部委密切配合,在一系列的政策和策略上为大学生的就业和他们的创业提供良好的政策环境,提供一个很好的政策体系。我们也要求各个地方的教育行政部门、人事部门、劳动部门大家一起建立起一整套为大学毕业生就业服务的体系。特别是各个学校要转变观念,建立起更加完善的大学毕业生就业服务体系,帮助大学生找到更好的工作。我们现在充分利用现代信息技术、尤其是网络技术,大力推进就业信息服务,这方面也取得了很好的效果。还有高校内部要不断深化改革,我们的专业设置、培养体系、培养模式、课程体系、教学内容,都要随着市场的需求,随着经济建设的需求不断地进行变化,使得学生更加适应经济社会发展的需要。

  另外,我们还要大力加强就业的思想教育、创业的思想教育。这两年来我们实行了西部志愿者计划,取得了很好的成效,虽然人数不多,但是代表了青年一代健康成长的正确方向。如果几百万的毕业生都集中在北京、上海这些大城市就业,确实是非常困难的。中国有这样广阔的大有作为的天地,年轻人要提倡一种风气,大家都到祖国需要的地方,到最能够发挥才能、智慧的地方去,为祖国做出贡献。我想这个风气的发扬,对毕业生的就业也会起到很好的效果。

  [中国国际广播电台记者]:第一个问题,关于研究生收费的,最近有一些媒体报道,说马上要进行研究生的全面收费,今年是全面的试点,明年全部的研究生都要收费了。我们想从周部长这儿得到证实。第二个问题,周部长出任教育部部长快两年的时间了,教育是每个人都关心的问题,您也面临着一些批评或者是种种非议,请问周部长对于这些批评持什么态度?另外,您有没有一个例子能够告诉我们,一些公众或者是媒体提出的意见,是不是在教育部中得到了落实,或者是得到了某些修正?谢谢。

  [周济]:第一个问题是个很敏感的问题,我们发的材料中有比较完整、全面、准确的说法,即:推进研究生教育改革,改革和创新研究生教育体制,完善研究生培养导师资助制和负责制,推行助研、助教和助管岗位制,推进研究生培养成本分担制度改革,深化研究生招生和选拔制度改革,调整和完善研究生学制。支持研究生参加科研团队、参与科研创新,着力提高研究生教育质量。我可以明确的说,这不是一个全面收费的改革,更不是一个全面自费的改革。

  我想强调一下,中国的研究生制度20多年以来得到了很好的发展,我们为国家培养了大批的拔尖创新人才。应该说,我们研究生的培养质量是高的。我认为,中国的教育质量是高的,我们的基础教育、本科生教育,甚至于我们的硕士研究生教育在国际上都是高水平的。当然,我们对博士研究生的培养还有一定的差距,这不完全是由教育决定的,还与我们整个经济发展水平和科学技术水平有很大的关系。教育也要不断的深化改革、提高质量。国际上很多国家,把硕士研究生作为一个过渡学位,现在他们大部分硕士研究生的学习都已经转移到不是进行研究论文的学习,而是进行课程的学习。我们觉得这不符合中国的国情,所以我们还是坚持以研究为主进行学习。在这个意义上来说,中国硕士研究生的教育水平目前在国际上还是很高的。但是,我们还是面临着严峻的挑战,要不断地提高我们研究生培养的质量,来适应现代化建设强烈的需求。我们要不断地进行改革,改革的目标是提高质量,改革的关键是科学研究。研究生,顾名思义,就是通过研究工作来进行学习的学生。所以,我们要紧紧抓住科学研究这样一个关键的环节来推进改革。在今后的硕士研究生的培养当中,要更加加重科学研究的成份。我们提出来要推行助研、助教和助管岗位制,完善研究生学制,就是要把研究生论文学习的培养和科学研究更紧密地结合起来。没有科学研究的课题,就不能进行研究生的培养工作。这次改革的核心就在这里,我们要想进一步地提高研究生的质量,就必须大大加强研究生培养过程当中科学研究的成份。

  现在我们国家的研究生培养过程中,已经存在着一些事实上的自费生,就是所谓自筹经费或者定向培养的学生,对这些学生的收费还需要进一步的规范。推进研究生成本分担制度的改革,是要减少自费研究生收费的人数、钱数。实际上这个改革只会有利于研究生的培养,对自费生的数量我们会加以严格的控制,比例应该低于改革之前,钱数应该低于改革之前。有人说,只要开这个口子,将来都是走收费或者自费这条路了。我们认为,改革是一场深刻的革命,会涉及到方方面面利益的再分配。这个改革一定要朝着有利于改进中国研究生的培养质量上发展。

  我们有两条措施来实现宏观调控。第一,我们将把自费研究生占整个研究生数量的比例作为一个学校、一个学科研究生培养质量的重要指标。第二,如果一个学校或者一个学科,自费研究生的招生数量超过一定比例,我们就会削减这个学校、这个学科研究生的招生数量。

  还要强调两条,第一,博士生的培养,我们会要求基本上是采用助研、助教和助管的岗位制。第二,对于家庭困难的研究生,我们会实行更加主动、更加全面的资助制度。

  第二个问题,媒体对教育问题的关心和厚爱,表扬还是占多数的。你刚才说对我们提出批评,我是非常注意媒体的舆论宣传的,我分析了一下,实际上表扬的多一些,批评的少一些。我想,媒体对教育非常关心,正好说明了教育太重要了,它关系到千家万户,关系到亿万学子,关系到国家的发展,我们也深刻感受到我们任重道远、责任重大、使命崇高。

  说到媒体对成绩的肯定,我认为教育战线是受之无愧的。中国的教育在世纪之交的时候,实现了两个跨越式的发展:

  第一个是我们在中国这样一个拥有13亿人口的发展中大国,实现了基本普及九年义务教育、基本扫除青少年文盲,这是一个伟大的历史性成就。我们访问过巴西、印度,访问过一系列的发展中国家,巴西现在人均GDP 是3000美元,但是它在普及九年义务教育方面比我们还差得远。我说这个话的意思是,在中国这样一个国家里教育实现了超前发展,在13亿人口这样一个人口大国,我们普及九年义务教育是一个了不起的历史成就。

  第二个是我们高等教育在世纪之交的时候实现了一个历史性的跨越。1998年我们全日制高校招生是108万,去年已经达到了447万,在六年的时间里翻了两番。而且是在质量基本保证并有所提高的前提下,在我们的财政投入和教师数量没有很大增加的情况下,规模有了这样的发展,确实是一个了不起的成就。

  在全国人民的理解和支持之下,在整个教育系统和全社会的奋斗之下,我们实现了两个历史性的跨越:一个是基本普及九年义务教育,一个是高等教育进入了国际公认的大众化阶段,这对我们中国的人才培养意义是极其深远的。我认为是功在当代、利在千秋,是中华民族伟大复兴的奠基工程。我非常钦佩我的前任和教育战线的同志们,他们是在一个非常困难的条件下超前地实现了这样伟大的历史性跨越。

  中国的基本国情就是有13亿人口,这13亿人口是我们主要的资源,如果这13亿人口素质很低,就是沉重的人口负担;如果素质很高,就是丰富的人力资源、宝贵的人力财富。要从沉重的人口负担转化为丰富的人力资源、宝贵的人力财富就需要一个转化,这个转化就要靠教育。所以,这两个历史性的成就,再怎么表彰也不为过,这会是我们中国教育史上的两块丰碑,将会对中华民族的伟大复兴起到巨大的作用。

  我们也非常感谢媒体对我们的监督和批评。我们深深地知道,这样一个历史性的跨越、这样一个大的发展,必然会伴随着很多问题。有些是我们工作当中的问题,有些是一些深层次的问题,正在逐步地暴露出来。我们要继续前进的话,每一步都伴随着很多困难,我们有决心克服这些问题,正视问题、分析问题、解决问题。要解决好这些问题,也需要媒体朋友们的支持和帮助。

  举个例子,就是关于高校招生的问题。去年媒体帮我们披露了存在的一些严重问题,我们也从这些问题中进行了深刻的反思。今年我们将要在全国范围内推进“阳光招生”,要把所有招生的信息、过程、结果都公布在舆论和群众面前,接受监督。

  总之,我们教育的发展是靠着人民群众的理解、关心和支持,要继续得到进一步发展的话,就要继续得到人民群众的理解、关心和支持。说实在话,我们是用比较小的投入办了世界上最大的教育,而且是质量比较好的教育。有很多很多的问题,有时候我也感到很难,我们的同志们也感到很难,有的同志说是“教育不可承受之重”。我认为,教育战线的同志们必须承担起这样一个历史的重担,这是党和人民交给我们的重担,也是神圣而崇高的使命。我想,有全国人民的理解和支持,有党中央、国务院的领导,有媒体同志们的帮助和共同的努力,有全国教育战线上的同志们的共同努力,一定能办好人民满意的教育,为中华民族的伟大复兴做出贡献。

  谢谢,给大家拜个早年!

  2005年中国教育改革与发展的思路和举措

(2005年1月27日)

中华人民共和国教育部


  2004年,是中国教育事业持续健康快速发展的一年。一年来,教育系统以邓小平理论和“三个代表”重要思想为指导,深入学习贯彻党的十六大和十六届三中、四中全会精神,巩固成果、深化改革、提高质量、持续发展,全面推进《2003-2007年教育振兴行动计划》,教育事业改革和发展迈出新步伐、取得新进展。
——重点加强农村义务教育,西部地区“两基”攻坚计划扎实推进。贯彻落实《国务院关于进一步加强农村教育工作的决定》,各级政府和教育行政部门坚决把农村义务教育作为整个教育工作的重中之重,作为实施新一轮《教育振兴行动计划》的战略重点,认真落实中央关于新增教育经费主要用于农村教育的要求,集中主要精力和更多财力推动农村义务教育发展。中央有关部门研究出台了一系列支持农村教育发展的重大政策措施,进一步完善“以县为主”的农村义务教育管理体制,进一步加大对农村义务教育投入力度。2004年,中央财政投入农村义务教育各类专项资金达到100亿元,比2003年增长了72%。地方各级政府和教育行政部门统筹协调,扎实推进农村义务教育各项工作。

  2004年2月,国务院办公厅召开国家西部地区“两基”攻坚工作会议,国家发展与改革委员会、财政部、教育部密切配合,建立健全西部攻坚工作机制。2004年7月,中央与西部12省(区、市)人民政府及新疆生产建设兵团签订了“两基”攻坚责任书,同时启动了“农村寄宿制学校建设工程”。中央财政为此将投入100亿元建设资金,用四年的时间,在全国955个县(主要集中在西部地区和贫困地区),建设7730所寄宿制学校,解决203万名学生寄宿问题。今后,这些地区的学生将进入宽敞明亮的教室学习和安全舒适的宿舍住宿,再也不用每天为上学翻山越岭、长途跋涉。

  “农村中小学现代远程教育工程”由试点阶段进入全面实施阶段。中央财政为此将投入50亿元,重点补助中西部农村地区,构建覆盖全国的农村中小学的现代远程教育体系。“工程”的实施将以面向学生应用为主要目标,使农村初中基本具备计算机教室,农村小学基本具备卫星教学收视点,农村小学教学点具备教学光盘播放设备和成套教学光盘,为农村中小学生提供优质教育资源,为农民文化、科技和卫生知识培训服务。

  此外,第二期“国家贫困地区义务教育工程”和“中小学危房改造工程”继续实施,为贫困地区和少数民族地区建成了一批设施齐全的中小学,促进了贫困地区教育相对落后面貌的改变。

  ——青少年思想道德建设进一步加强。《中共中央国务院关于进一步加强和改进未成年人思想道德建设的若干意见》和《中共中央国务院关于进一步加强和改进大学生思想政治教育的意见》发布后,全国教育系统干部教师开展了教育思想大讨论,广泛开展了中小学弘扬和培育民族精神月活动,及时修订了中小学生守则和日常行为规范,充分发挥学校在未成年人思想道德建设中的主渠道、主阵地、主课堂作用。为促进青少年学生健康成长和全面贯彻党的教育方针,各地认真落实新形势下减轻学生过重课业负担的五项要求,全力做好义务教育阶段新课程试验工作,扎实推进素质教育,促进学生德智体美等方面全面发展。目前,全国90%以上的县(区)义务教育阶段起始年级,已经开始使用新课程。2005年年1月,中央召开了全国加强和改进大学生思想政治教育工作会议,对进一步加强和改进大学生思想政治教育工作进行了全面部署,高等学校全面加强了大学生思想政治教育。

  ——高等学校教学质量稳步提高,高水平大学、重点学科建设和高层次人才培养工作继续推进,高等教育事业继续健康稳步发展。2004年,全国普通高校本专科招生447.3万人,比2003年增长17.05%;研究生招生32.6万人,比2003年增加5.7万人。目前,全国各类高等教育在学人数超过2000万人,高等教育毛入学率达到19%。与此同时,高等学校毕业就业工作平稳推进,截至2004年9月1日,全国普通高校毕业生就业率达到73%,比2003年同期提高3个百分点。

  ——职业教育事业在改革中加速发展,为经济建设和社会发展服务能力显著增强。各地和各级职业院校坚持以服务为宗旨、以就业为导向,大力实施“制造业与现代服务业技能型紧缺人才培养培训计划”和“农村劳动力转移培训计划”,密切与企业与人才、劳务市场的合作,进一步优化资源配置和布局结构,深化管理体制和办学体制改革,事业发展势头良好。2004年,全国中等职业教育招生人数达到548万人,在校生人数达到1368万人;普通高等职业教育在校生人数达到595.7万人,比2003年增加100多万人。

  ——努力办好让人民满意的教育,高度重视解决贫困家庭学生学习和生活问题和群众关心的教育难点问题。2004年秋季,中央财政安排出专项资金,为中西部地区义务教育阶段2400万贫困家庭学生免费提供教科书,地方各级政府采取多种措施实行“两免一补”政策,让更多的孩子们切实感受到党和政府的阳光雨露和社会主义大家庭的温暖。贯彻国务院召开“全国高校贫困家庭学生资助工作电视电话会议”,进一步完善了国家助学贷款政策体系和运行机制,为品学兼优的贫困家庭学生发放国家奖学金,落实高校学费收入10%用于贫困家庭学生资助政策,确保高校学生不因家庭经济困难而失学。为巩固和发展治理教育乱收费成果,2004年秋季新学年开始,在全国义务教育阶段积极推行“一费制”,严格规范学校收费管理,切实减轻群众尤其是农民教育负担,落实政府对义务教育投入责任,促进义务教育持续健康发展。与此同时,开展了中小学和幼儿园安全专项整治行动,认真排查校园内各种安全隐患,进一步净化校园周边和网络环境,为青少年学生健康成长创造良好的条件。

  2005年,是中国向全面建设小康社会宏伟目标继续迈进的重要一年。做好2005年教育工作,最重要的就是要以科学发展观统领教育工作全局。我们将牢固树立和认真落实科学发展观,坚持 “巩固、深化、提高、发展”的方针,将提高质量放在更加突出的重要位置,深入推进实施《2003-2007年教育振兴行动计划》,统筹教育规模、质量、结构、效益的协调发展,统筹各级各类教育的协调发展,统筹城乡教育和区域教育的协调发展,统筹教育事业的改革、发展和稳定,紧紧抓住新的发展机遇,着力推动改革创新,促进教育事业全面、协调、可持续发展,努力办好让人民满意的教育。今年,我们将重点做好六个方面的工作:

(一)坚持“育人为本、德育为首”,全面推进素质教育

  加强和改进中小学思想道德建设和大学生思想政治教育是2005年教育工作的重点。站在培养社会主义建设者和接班人的战略高度,我们将全面贯彻落实党的教育方针,加快建立和完善大中小学相衔接的德育工作体系,健全学校、家庭、社会相配合的德育工作机制,更加深入地推进素质教育。

  教育行政部门和学校各级领导要带头做好德育工作,真正做到“四个落实”:一要在教育行政部门议事日程中落实,进一步加强领导。二要在学校各项工作中落实,完善德育工作机制,落实德育工作队伍,保证德育工作经费。三要在教师队伍中落实,大力加强中小学班主任和高校辅导员队伍建设,使做好德育工作成为全体教师自觉行动。四要在课程和教材建设中落实,集中力量编写好一批高质量的思想政治课教材。

  基础教育课程改革是推进素质教育的关键环节。 我们将继续扩大义务教育阶段课程改革成果,稳步推进高中课程改革实验,切实减轻中小学生课业负担,重点做好三项工作:一是认真研究新旧课程平稳过渡办法,做好新课程与中考、高考的衔接工作。二是改进和完善教材编写、审定和选用制度。三是抓紧建立起基础教育质量监控体系和评估制度。为进一步推进基础课程改革,教育部将设立全国基础教育教育教学指导委员会。

  为促进青少年学生全面发展和健康成长,我们将全面推进以“每天锻炼一小时”为内容的青春健身活动,继续加强美育,推动心理健康教育,广泛开展预防艾滋病和毒品预防教育。

(二)继续把农村教育放在“重中之重”的位置

  加强农村教育是一项长期而又艰巨的历史任务。2005年要重点在三个方面继续推进。一是加大 “两基”攻坚力度,确保“国家西部地区‘两基’攻坚计划”制定的各项措施的落实。落实寄宿制学校建设工程等各项工程建设资金,组织实施好农村中小学现代远程教育工程。采取“以奖代补”等措施,加大对中部地区特别是粮食主产区义务教育工作的支持力度,推动中部各省进一步加大,巩固提高中部地区农村义务教育。鼓励东部经济发达农村地区实现高质量、高水平“普九”。

  二是适应农村税费改革全面推进的新形势,深化“以县为主”的农村义务教育管理体制改革。继续落实县级政府对本地教育发展规划、经费安排使用、中小学校长和教师的管理责任。进一步健全和规范财政转移支付办法,全面落实“保工资、保运转、保安全”的要求,巩固和完善以政府投入为主的农村义务教育经费保障机制。加快农村教育综合改革的步伐,推进“三教统筹”和农科教结合,促进农村教育更好地为“三农”服务。

  三是切实加强农村教师队伍建设。推动各地落实和用好教师编制,严把教师入口关,进一步完善农村学校教师考核、聘任制度;积极推进中小学人事制度改革,安排城镇教师到农村任教,促进教师流动;广泛开展中小学教师全员培训, 进一步提高农村教师队伍素质。大力加强师德建设。

(三)全面快速推进职业教育改革和发展

  当前,国民经济正在进入一个新的快速增长周期,对技能型人才提出很大的需求。2005年,一要力争中等职业学校招生数比2004年再增长100万,当年招生达到650万人的规模,逐步实现中等职业教育和普通高中规模大体相当的协调发展。二要继续实施好“制造业和现代服务业技型能紧缺人才培养培训计划”和“农村劳动力转移培训计划”,大力加强职业教育实训基地的建设,支持每个县重点办好一所职业教育中心。

  职业教育发展的出路在改革。我们将坚持以服务为宗旨,以就业为导向,进一步提高职业教育对经济社会的适应能力。一是加快“三个转变”,即:办学思想的转变,进一步明确职业院校的定位和方向;办学模式的转变,按照订单式培养的要求更好地适应经济社会发展的需要;办学机制的转变,采取更加开放、灵活多样的学习形式。二是大力加强职业道德教育和职业技能培训这两个重点,加紧建立和完善校内实训和企业实习制度。三是落实两个对接,即职业教育和培训与劳动力市场对接,促进产学结合、教育培训与劳务中介结合;劳动力输出地和劳动力输入地对接。

  为加快职业教育的改革和发展,还要采取一些重大的战略举措。我们将坚持公办中等职业学校、高等职业学校不升格;高等职业教育主要实行两年制;鼓励城市学校到农村招生,东部学校到西部招生,促进双向协作和联合办学;支持和推进学分制改革,加快建立“学分银行”,促进工学交替;鼓励发展民办职业学校和培训机构等。

(四)提高高等教育人才培养质量、科技创新能力和社会服务水平

  2005年,普通高校本专科招生计划475万人;研究生招生37万人,其中硕士研究生招生31.6万人,博士研究生招生5.4万。高等教育将坚持以服务求支持、以贡献求发展,着力推进改革创新,提高人才培养、科技创新和社会服务的贡献力度。我们将着重抓好以下四个方面的工作:

  一是深入推进“高等学校教学质量与教学改革工程”,大力加强教学工作,切实提高教育质量。强化教育教学工作制度,切实落实教授、副教授为本科学生上课的要求。大力推进优质教学资源建设和共享,重点建设300门国家精品课程。进一步加大教学投入,落实学费收入20%用于教学的政策。落实高校五年评估一次措施,健全教学质量监控与保障体系。做好第五届国家级优秀教学成果奖评选和表彰工作。

  二是继续实施“985工程”和“211工程”,深入推进“高等学校科技创新计划”和“高等学校哲学社会科学繁荣计划”,大力促进产学研结合,推进高等教育与经济建设和科技创新紧密结合、与文化繁荣和社会进步紧密结合,培养高层次创新人才,提高科技创新和为社会服务能力,提升高等学校竞争力。
 
  三是大力推进人才强校战略,实施高层次创造性人才计划。积极探索学科带头人加创新团队人才组织新模式,深化教师聘任制改革;切实落实“长江学者”与“创新团队”计划、“新世纪优秀人才支持计划”和“青年骨干教师培养计划”,全面推动高校教师队伍建设;鼓励和支持优秀留学人才回国工作和为国服务,形成青年拔尖人才发展的绿色通道。

  四是继续实施“研究生教育创新计划”,推进研究生教育改革。改革和创新研究生教育体制,完善研究生培养导师资助制和负责制,推行助研、助教和助管岗位制,推进研究生培养成本分担制度改革,深化研究生招生和选拔制度改革,调整和完善研究生学制。支持研究生参加科研团队、参与科研创新,着力提高研究生教育质量。

(五)加快教育改革开放步伐,进一步完善教育投入机制

  关于深化教育改革,2005年的重点是:加快农村教育改革;推进办学体制的改革,特别是要促进民办教育的积极发展和规范管理;继续完善高等教育管理体制,推进高等教育布局结构新的调整;继续推进高校后勤社会化,深化招生、收费和高考改革;加快教师教育制度和教育人事制度改革;大力推进依法治校和学校内部管理体制改革等等。

  关于扩大教育开放,2005年的重点是:推进教育国际合作与交流,扩大学历学位互认,促进“强强合作”;加强对中外合作办学和自费留学中介的管理,引导自费留学健康发展,规范中外合作办学;切实加强对外汉语工作,大力推广“乘风汉语”和“长城汉语”,积极推动海外孔子学院建设,加强对外汉语教师队伍建设;进一步扩大公派出国留学规模,尤其是公派出国攻读博士学位和从事博士后研究人员的数量。

  近年来,全国教育经费快速增长,但仍然不能满足教育事业提高质量和持续发展两个方面的需求。2005年,我们要抓住当前财政收入增长较快和逐步建立公共财政体制的有利时机,推动各地政府依法落实教育经费的“三个增长”政策,特别是真正保证按决算数据做到“三个增长”。与此同时,我们还要坚持勤俭办教育,调控好教育投资方向,加强资金管理和安全,进一步提高教育经费使用效益。

(六)努力促进教育公平,更好地解决教育的难点问题

  2005年,我们要重点抓好四件事:一是切实落实对家庭贫困学生的资助和扶持政策。在义务教育阶段,认真做好向2400万家庭贫困学生免费提供教科书工作,推动各地政府逐步落实“一免一补”(即:免杂费、补助寄宿生生活费)责任。在高等学校,全面落实国家助学贷款新政策,进一步完善国家助学金管理办法和勤工助学、特殊困难补助、学费减免政策等。

  二是切实加强校园安全工作, 积极探索建立维护校园安全新机制,进一步净化校园周边和网络等青少年成长空间,为青少年学生健康成长营造更加良好的环境。

  三是坚持不懈地做好高校毕业生就业工作。2005年,全国普通高校毕业生人数预计将达到338万人,与2004年相比,增幅达到20.71%。高校毕业生就业工作必须长抓不懈。

  四是继续加大治理教育乱收费的力度,加强教育系统党风廉政建设。在全国范围内全面推行义务教育阶段学校“一费制”收费办法,进一步规范高中招收择校生的“三限”政策,继续稳定高校收费标准、规范高校收费行为。全力实施高校招生“阳光工程”,做到招生录取全程公开、信息透明,接受群众监督、舆论监督。

  研究和制定《2020年中国教育发展纲要》,谋划教育事业新的改革发展,是今年教育工作一项重要战略任务。我们将坚持以科学发展观为指导,按照实现全面建设小康社会宏伟目标的要求,贯彻落实“科教兴国”战略和“人才强国”战略,积极动员教育系统和社会各界积极参与,进一步明确教育改革与发展的基本思路,勾画中国特色社会主义现代化教育体系蓝图。

At the press conference sponsored by the State Council Information Office on January 27, 2005, Zhou Ji, minister of Education, briefed the press on outline and actions of China's education reform and development in 2005. He also answered the questions from the press.


Speech by Zhou Ji, Minister of Education

January 27, 2005

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Good morning, ladies and gentlemen!

It gives me great pleasure to meet you all again just before the coming of the traditional Chinese New Year. Over the past 12 months, the reform and development of education in China received heartwarming concern and support from the whole society, and substantial attention and care from the press. I would like to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to you all.

In the year 2004, under the competent leadership of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, and through the guidance of Deng Xiaoping's Theory and the Important Thought of 'the Three Represents', the education sector made remarkable progress through full-scale implementation of the Action Plan of the Invigoration of Education 2003-2007. We consolidated past achievements, deepened reform, upgraded quality, maintained sustainable development, achieved breakthroughs in all fields of our work, and made renewed progress in the reform and development of education.

First, compulsory education in rural areas has been strengthened and promoted substantially and the Breakthrough Program in western China saw a good beginning in tackling the most difficult tasks of the 'two basics' (that is, basic popularization of nine-year compulsory education and basic elimination of illiteracy among the young and the middle-aged). We continued to make compulsory education in rural areas a top priority within the overall education work and pushed the development of compulsory education in rural areas to a new height through concentrating our energy and resources. In the year of 2004, the Central Government earmarked 10 billion RMB Yuan into rural area for compulsory education, a 72 percent rise over the figure in 2003. The Project of Building Rural Boarding Schools and the Modern Distance Education Project for the Rural Schools progressed smoothly.

Second, taking advantage of the historical opportunities when the No. 8 and No. 16 Circular of the CPC Central Committee were issued, we effectively strengthened the ideological and moral education for primary and secondary school students and the ideology and political education for the college students.

Third, we focused on the steady expansion in the scale of higher education and in the mean time significantly raised its quality. To date, the total on-campus student population exceeds 20 million. The gross enrolment rate of higher education reaches 19 percent. Research in philosophy and social sciences, technological innovation, and commercialization of new and high-tech have been pushed forward.

Fourth, we advanced reform and development in the field of vocational education through adapting the job-oriented approaches. The capacity of vocational education in serving the economic and social development has been reinforced.

Fifth, we stuck to the "putting people first" principle, and concentrated on solving problems of common concern in the educational sector:

2 We gave a great deal of attention to the employment of university graduates;
2 In order to tackle the financial difficulties of students from the poor families in schooling and living, we enlarged the scope of allocating free textbooks, and revised the State Student Loans policy for university students and the mechanism of giving financial aid to the students from poor families;
2 We launched a massive campaign in addressing the students' safety issue in primary schools, secondary schools and kindergartens;
2 The "one fee for all" approach was implemented nationwide and random charge of fees was redressed. Behaviors of unlawful
enrollment of students were penalized.

Sixth, to thoroughly implement the spirit of the Fourth Plenary Session of the 16th CPC National Congress, we strengthened human resources development in the whole educational system. Besides, new progress has been made in areas such as non-government schools, international education cooperation and exchanges, and governing and administration by law.

The year of 2005 is an important year both for our endeavor in building a well-off society in an all-round way and for promoting reform and development in education. To achieve our objectives of 2005, the most important thing is the application of the scientific viewpoints of development in our strategic planning and in all aspects of work in the reform and development of education. While sticking to the principle of "putting people first," we will hold fast the guidelines 'consolidating achievements, deepening reform, upgrading quality, and making sustainable development' and put the upgrading of quality in the most prominent position. We will make overall plans as regards such elements as scale, quality, structure and efficiency of education, striving to achieve a coordinated development of education of all types and at all levels; striving to achieve a coordinated development of education between urban and rural areas and among different regions. Attention will be paid to the balancing of reform, development and stability. To further map the reform and development of education, we are going to work on the drafting of the 2020 Outline for Education Development and the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for Education.

In the year of 2005, we will mainly concentrate on the following six major areas:

Firstly, we will continue to make rural education a top priority and spare no efforts in speeding up the reform and development of the rural education. We will forge ahead to tackle the formidable tasks of universalizing the "Two Basis" in western China and push forward rural compulsory education in the central part of China on top of what has been achieved.

Second, we will carry out to the letter the requirements as stipulated in the No. 8 and No. 16 Circulars of the CPC Central Committee and requirements put forward by government meetings on education. Paying equal attention to "cultivating the whole person as the ultimate goal, putting moral education as first priority" so as to strengthen and improve ideology and ethnic education for primary and secondary school students and ideology and political education for college students.

Third, we will speed up the development of vocational education in an all-round manner by the job-oriented manner and through reform and innovation in vocational education.

Fourth, in the field of higher education, we will continue to steadily develop higher education, build up world-class universities, improve quality, scientific innovation capability, and community service.

Fifth, we will step up educational reform and opening up to the world, perfect the education input mechanism and raise the effectiveness in educational investment.

Sixth, we will further promote equal access to education and tackle the thorny problems facing education. We will further putting into place the policies on providing financial aid to students from the poor families; enhance the campus security; lay more emphasis on the employment issue of university graduates; redress random charge of fees by schools, and thoroughly check irregularities in the sector of education.

The building of a well-off society in an all-round way depends on the availability of talents; yet the key to the cultivation of talents lies in education. Education bears on tens of thousands of households and hundreds of millions of students. People in the educational sector all realize the immensity of our responsibility and the loftiness of our mission. Under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee headed by Secretary General Hu Jintao, we will deepen our understanding of, and firmly carry out the scientific viewpoints of development, promote the all-round, coordinated and sustainable development of education of various types and at all levels, and run an education to the heart's content of the people, so as to make greater contribution to the building of a well-off society in an all-round way and to the rejuvenation of our country.

Now, I am ready to take your questions. Thank you!

Outline and Actions of China's Education Reform and Development in 2005

January 27, 2005

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The year 2004 has seen rapid, healthy and sustained development of Chinese education. Guided by the Deng Xiaoping Theory and the important thoughts of the "Three Represents", the education system of the country learn and implement thoroughly the spirits of the 16th CPC National Congress and its third and fourth plenary sessions, consolidate achievements, deepen reforms, improve quality, develop continuously and carry forward in full scale the Action Plan of The Invigoration of Education 2003-2007. New progress has been accomplished in education reform and development.
First, priority was given to improving compulsory education in rural areas and the Breakthrough Program of the "Two Basics" in Western China was carried out down-to-earth. While implementing the Decisions of the State Council on Further Improving Education in Rural Areas, governments and education authority at all levels held rural compulsory education as top priority in the all education affairs, as strategic priority in execution of the new Action Plan of The Invigoration of Education. The requirement of the Central Government on investing the majority of the increased education funds in rural education was employed earnestly. Main efforts and more financial resources were pooled to advance development of rural compulsory education. The relevant departments of the Central Government put forward a series of important policies and measures to support development of rural education, such as further perfecting the county-based rural compulsory education administration system and further increasing financial input in rural compulsory education. In 2004, all earmarked funds of the Central Government's input in rural compulsory education reached 10 billion RMB yuan, an increase of 72 percent over 2003. Governments and education authority at all local levels coordinated all efforts in improving rural compulsory education.
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In February 2004, the General Office of the State Council convened a national conference on Breakthrough of the "Two Basics" in Western China. The State Commission of Development and Reform, Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Education cooperated closely and established a work mechanism. In July 2004, the Central Government signed an accountability agreement on breakthrough of the "Two Basics" individually with the People's Government of the 12 western provinces (autonomous regions and municipality) and the Production and Construction Corps of the People's Liberation Army in Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, and kicked off at the same time the Project of Building Rural Boarding Schools. The central finance will invest 10 billion RMB yuan into this project to build 7,730 boarding schools for 2.03 millions students in 955 counties of the country (the majority in western and poverty-stricken areas) in the following four years. In the future, students in these areas will no longer walk a long way or tramp over hill and dale every day to school. They will be able to study in spacious and well-lit classrooms and stay in safe and comfortable dormitories.

The Modern Distance Education Project for Rural Schools entered into full-scale implementation after accomplishment of the pilot stage, with the purpose of constructing a modern distance education network covering all rural schools in the whole country. The central finance will invest 5 billion RMB yuan to subsidize mainly the central and western rural areas. This project aims at student application, will equip rural junior secondary school with a basic computer laboratory, rural primary school with a set of basic satellite receiving facility, and rural teaching site of primary school with a basic VCD player and a complete set of VCD teaching materials.

In addition, the second phase of the State Compulsory Education Project in Poor Areas and the Renovation Project of Dilapidated Buildings in Primary and Secondary Schools continued to be carried out. Both projects have helped building a number of well-equipped primary and secondary schools in poor and minority-inhabited areas, and have promoted change of relatively underdeveloped situation of education in these areas.

Second, the ideological and moral education of the adolescents has been strengthened. After issuance of the Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Further Enhancing and Improving Ideological and Moral Education of the Minors and the Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Further Enhancing and Improving Ideological and Political Education of College Students, a grand discussion on educational ideology was launched involving cadres and teachers of the country's education system; a month-long campaign of educating and carrying forward national ethos in elementary and secondary schools was carried out extensively; the Rules and Regulations of School Students and the Code of Everyday Behaviors of School Students were revised promptly. All these efforts have given full play of schools as main channel, main front and main classroom for ideological and moral education of the minors. For the purpose of promoting a healthy growth of young students and thoroughly implementing the CPC's guiding principle for education, the five requirements on alleviating too heavy homework burden of students under the new situation were put into practice conscientiously in the whole country. Great efforts were also made to carry out the piloting of new compulsory education curriculum, to promote competence-oriented education, and to facilitate an all-rounded growth of students morally, intellectually, physically and aesthetically. Up to now, new school students of compulsory education in 90 percent of the counties in the country began to use the new curriculum. In January 2005, the CPC Central Committee convened the National Conference on Further Enhancing and Improving Ideological and Political Education of College Students, which mapped out the action plan for the next stage. Higher education institutions have all launched new efforts in this regard.

Third, the teaching quality of higher education institutions has been improved progressively; continuous progress has been achieved in construction of high-level universities, key subject areas and training of advanced-level talents; higher education developed unremittingly, steadily and healthily. In 2004, higher education institutions of the country enrolled 4.473 million freshmen, an increase of 17.5 percent over the previous year; graduate programs enrolled 326,000 new students, an increase of 57,000 over 2003. At present, the total enrolment of higher education is more than 20 million, and the gross enrollment rate reached 19 percent. In the meanwhile, the career service of college graduates has been improved. By September 1, 2004, the employment rate of college graduates of the whole country reached 73 percent, a 3 percentage higher than that of the same time of 2003.

Fourth, vocational education has seen accelerated development as well as reforms, and improved capability in serving the economic growth and social development. By persisting in service-aiming and job-oriented guiding principle, vocational schools at all levels and in all localities put into practice vigorously the Project of Training Direly-needed Skilled Manpower for Manufacturing and Modern Service Industries and the Project of Training for Migrant Rural Labor, strengthened cooperation with enterprises and the labor market. Actions were also taken to further improve resource deployment and distribution structure of vocational schools, and to deepen reforms of administrative and schooling systems. A good momentum is obtained. In 2004, the secondary vocational education schools enrolled 5.48 million new students with the total enrollment reaching 136.8 million. The tertiary vocational education colleges enrolled a total of 5.957 million students, over 1 million more than that of previous year.

Fifth, great efforts were made to improve educational provision meeting the satisfaction to the people; high priority was attached to meeting special learning and living needs of students from poor families and issues of people's concern. In autumn of 2004, the central finance earmarked funds to provide free textbooks for 24 million students of compulsory education from poor families in the central and western region. Governments at all local levels adopted measures in executing the policy of "Two Exemptions and One Subsidy". All these efforts have enabled more children to feel the special care of the CPC and the government and the warmth of the grand socialist family. Actions were taken to implement the decisions made in the National TV and Telephone Conference on Subsidizing College Students from Poor Families, such as further improving the policy system of the National Student Loan Program, providing National Scholarships to excellent students from poor families, carrying out the policy of investing 10 percent of university tuition revenue in subsidizing students from poor families, so as to make sure that no student drops out because of financial difficulty of the family. In order to consolidate and further the achievements of rectifying the random charges by schools, starting from the autumn of 2004, the "One Fee for All" was put into practice vigorously in compulsory education all over China to control and regulate strictly collection of fee by schools, to really alleviate the people's, especially the farmer's, burden for education and carry out the responsibility of the government in provision of compulsory education, and to promote a healthy and sustained development of compulsory education in the country. In the meanwhile, a special rectifying campaign was conducted to improve security of schools and kindergartens with efforts made to screen the hidden security issues within the campus, to further refine the surroundings of the campus and network environment, so as to create favorable conditions for healthy growth of young students.

The year 2005 is an important year for China to march toward the lofty goal of building a well-off society in an all-rounded manner. To make the work in education conducive to the accomplishment of the goal, the most important thing for us is to undertake our work in scientific viewpoints of development. We will firmly establish and seriously implement the scientific viewpoints of development, stick to the guidelines of "consolidating, deepening, upgrading and developing", place quality improvement at a more conspicuous and important position, further push forward the implementation of the Action Plan for the Invigoration of Education in 2003-2007, aim for a balanced development of scale, quality, structure and efficiency of education, of various types of education at all levels, of education between rural and urban areas as well as among different regions in the country, coordinate the reform, development and stability of education, concretely grasp new opportunities for development, make special efforts to put forward reform and innovation, so as to promote a full-scale, coordinated and sustained development of education. We will spare no efforts to improve educational provision meeting satisfaction of the people. To this end, we will work on the following 6 priorities this year:

I. Stick to the principle of "cultivating the whole person as the ultimate goal, putting moral education as first priority", put competence-oriented education into operation in full scale.

It is one of the priorities in the year 2005 to enhance and improve the ideological and moral education of school students, and the ideological and political education of college students. At the strategic height of cultivating socialist builders and successors through education, we will fully implement the CPC guidelines for education, accelerate the establishment and betterment of a moral education system that connects schools and colleges, perfecting a moral education mechanism that links the school, family and the community so that the competence-oriented education could be further pushed forward.

Education authorities and leadership of schools at various levels should be exemplary in moral education endeavors and truly realize the "four incorporation": first, moral education should be incorporated into the agenda of educational authority at all levels to further consolidate leadership; second, it should be incorporated in all works of schools to perfect the mechanism for moral education, maintain a contingent of moral educators and guarantee the funding for moral education; third, it should be incorporated in the teachers to vigorously strengthen a contingent of chief teachers in schools and counselor in colleges, so that moral education becomes a self-conscious actions of all teachers; fourth, it should also be incorporated in the curriculum and textbooks, with compilation of a series of quality textbooks for moral and political education with concentrated efforts.

The curriculum reform in basic education is a critical link to pushing forward the competence-oriented education. We will continue to disseminate the achievements of curriculum reform in compulsory education, steadily push forward curriculum reform experiments in senior secondary schools, and truly alleviate the burden of school students. In these respects, three aspects of work stand out to be our focuses: first is to seriously study the ways to shift smoothly from the old curriculum to the new one, and find out a solution to conduct the senior secondary school entrance examinations and college entrance examinations based on the new curriculum; second is to improve and better the compilation, assessment and adoption of textbooks; third is to institute a quality monitoring system and evaluation mechanism for basic education as soon as possible. To further accelerate the curriculum reform in basic education, the Ministry of Education will commission a national steering committee for education and instruction in basic education.

To advocate the all-rounded development and healthy growth of young students, we will fully push forward a youth fitness program based on "one-hour physical exercise a day". At the same time, we will continue to strengthen arts education, advocate mental health education and extensively conduct anti-drug programs and programs aimed at the prevention of AIDS.

II. Consistently place rural education as the top priority

The strengthening of rural education is a long and arduous historic task. In 2005, we need to press forward in three aspects:

First, to exert more efforts in realization of the "Two Basics," ensure implementation of the measures stipulated in the Breakthrough Program of the "Two Basics" in Western China, guarantee funds for construction projects such as building boarding schools, coordinate the implementation of the Modern Distance Education Project for Rural Schools. Taking advantage of the measures such as Grant for Subsidy to give more support to the central region, especially the main grain-producing areas, so that the provinces in this region will provide more support to education, strengthen the quality improvement of compulsory education. Encouragement will be made to the economically developed eastern provinces to achieve a high-quality, high-level nine-year compulsory education.

Second, to adapt to the taxation reform in the rural areas and deepen the reform in the county-based rural compulsory education administration system. Efforts will be made to supervise the county government fulfill its responsibility in development planning, funds allocation and the personnel management of school principals and teachers. The method of fiscal payment transfer will be further improved and regulated to meet the requirements of "guarantee salary, operation and security," and to consolidate and improve a fund guarantee mechanism for rural compulsory education with government input as the main source. Acceleration will be achieved in the comprehensive reform of rural education to push forward "Coordination of three educations," the blending of agriculture, science and education and to make rural education better serve the countryside, agriculture and farmers.

Third, to actually strengthen the construction of a contingent of teachers for the rural areas. Local governments will be urged to make full use of the teaching positions with a strict entrance screening process, to further better the assessment and contractual assignment system for teachers in the rural areas. Endeavors will be made to actively push forward the personnel management reform in schools, rotating teachers in towns and cities to teach in rural areas to promote teacher mobility, and to implement training programs for all teachers to further improve the qualifications of rural teachers. And of course we should also rigorously strengthen the program for the improvement of teachers' ethics.

III. Advance the reform and development of vocational education in an all-round and speedy manner

Currently, as the national economy is at the threshold of another phase of rapid growth, it poses even greater demand on skilled manpower. In 2005, on one hand, we will increase the annual enrolment of new students of secondary vocational schools by another 1 million based on the 2004 figure, that is to reach 6.5 million, so as to achieve a coordinated development of senior secondary education featuring approximately equal numbers of students in senior secondary schools for general education and for vocational training. On the other hand, we must continue to enforce the Project of Training Direly-needed Skilled Manpower for Manufacturing and Modern Service Industries and the Project of Training for Migrant Rural Labor, commit more to the building of internship bases for vocational education, and support the building of at least one vocational training center in every county.

The solution to vocational education lies in reform. We will persist in service-aiming and job-orientation, so as to make vocational education more adaptable to the economy and society. In doing so, we must first step up the "three changes," that is, change our mindset of the functions of vocational schools and further clarify their positioning and orientation; change from the traditional modes of running vocational schools to a tailored one so as to better adapt to the economic and social development; and change the provision of vocational education to more open and flexible approaches. Second, we must lay more emphasis on both career ethics and skills in vocational education and quicken our paces in establishing the system of on-campus and corporate internship. Third, we must carry out the "two-dockings," that is, the docking of vocational education and training with the job market for the purpose of integrating production and learning and the smooth communication between vocational education and intermediately services, and the docking of labor-exporting areas and labor-importing areas.

A number of important strategic measures will be also formulated to speed up reform and development of vocational education. We will persist in the policies of no public secondary vocational school and tertiary vocational college being upgraded to higher level of status; tertiary vocational college offering two-year programs; encouraging urban schools to enroll students in the countryside and schools in the east to enroll students from the west and cross-region two-way cooperation and joint-running of schools; supporting and promoting reform in the introduction of academic credits system and speeding up the establishment of the "credit banks" for students to facilitate the easy transfer between work and study; promote development of non-government vocational schools and training institutions.

IV. Improve the quality of talents training, capability in technological innovation, and level of social service of higher education.

In 2005, the general higher education will enroll 4.75 million freshmen for bachelor and sub-degree programs, 370,000 students for graduate programs including 316,000 master degree candidates and 54,000 doctoral degree candidates. Higher education will continue to acquire support by rendering service and maintain development by making contributions, concert efforts in promoting reform and innovation to do a better job in talents training, technological innovation and social service. We will achieve this by focusing on the following four aspects:

First, we will further push forward the Project of Higher Education Quality and Teaching Reform to strengthen classroom instruction, to substantially raise the quality of education. Rules and regulations regarding teaching must be strictly abided by. Full professors and associate professors must offer lessons to undergraduate students. We will further promote the accumulation and sharing of quality teaching resources by focusing on compiling 300 national level model courses. Investment in teaching will also be further strengthened and it is required that 20 percent of tuition fees will be used in instruction. The five-year rotating quality assessment will be implemented so as to build a sound quality supervision and assurance system. We must also do a good job in selecting the awardees of the Fifth National Excellent Teachers.

Second, we will continue to implement the "985 Project" and the "211 Project," further carry out the University Technological Innovation Plan and the University Philosophical and Social Sciences Prosperity Plan, so as to promote the integration of production, learning, and research; to facilitate integration of higher education with economic development and technological innovation, with cultural prosperity and social progress; to train top-notch innovative personnel; to improve capability in technological innovation and level of social service of higher education; and to raise the universities competitiveness.

Third, we will make efforts to implement the strategy of strengthening universities with more talented people and the top-notch innovative talents training project. We will explore new modes of human resource management such as academic leader leading an innovative team and deepen the reform in academic staff employment; to strengthen academic staff improvement by continuing to carry out the Chang-Kieng Scholar Award Program, the Innovative Teams Project, the New Century Outstanding Talents Supporting Project and the Outstanding Young Teachers Training Project; encourage and support students with overseas learning experiences to serve for the motherland, return or not, and construct a green channel for the growth of young talents.

Fourth, we will continue to implement the Project of Innovation in Postgraduate Education to push forward reforms in graduate education. Efforts will be made to introduce reform and innovation in graduate education system; improve the system of supervisor-sponsoring and holding supervisor accountable in training of graduate students; carry out post-responsibility system of research assistant, teaching assistant, and administrative assistant; promote reform of cost-sharing in graduate education; deepen reform in enrolment and selection of graduate students; adjust and perfect the length of schooling of graduate education; support graduate students to participate in research teams and in the research innovation process, so as to raise the educational standard of graduate education.

V. Speed up educational reform and opening-up, and further improve the mechanism of financial input for education.

In terms of deepening educational reforms, the priorities for 2005 are: speeding up rural education reform; advancing the reform in schools running system, and in particular, facilitating the development and regulating the management of non-government education; continuing the efforts in outsourcing the logistic services of universities, and deepening reforms in national college entrance examinations, college student enrollment and tuition-collection; pushing forward system reforms for teacher training and human resource management; and accelerating vigorously endeavors in implementing rule of law and reforming internal administration systems of universities.

In terms of promoting educational opening-up, the focuses for 2005 are: expanding educational exchanges and cooperation, pushing forward mutual recognition of higher education credentials with foreign countries and facilitating "strength-to-strength" cooperation between Chinese and foreign universities; enhancing supervision and management of Sino-foreign cooperatively running of schools and the intermediaries for self-supporting students aspiring to study abroad; intensifying efforts to teach Chinese as a foreign language by vigorously popularizing the Chengo Chinese and the Great Wall Chinese, pushing forward establishment of Confucius Institutes in other countries and making efforts towards increasing the number and improving the quality of teachers for teaching Chinese as a foreign language; scaling up the number of researchers and students going abroad under government scholarship, especially the number of doctoral students and post-doctoral researchers.

Government expenditure on education has gained a remarkable increase in recent years, yet it still cannot satisfy the needs of education for constantly improvement of quality and for sustainable development. In 2005, we should seize the favorable circumstances of rapid revenue growth and the establishment of public financing system and push the local governments to carry out the policy of "three increases" in government expenditure on education based on the actual expenditure. Meanwhile, we should be thrifty when spending on education, manage and control financial investments, strengthen the management and ensure security of education funds, and achieve higher efficiency in use of funds.


VI. Make efforts toward equal access to education and accomplish the tough tasks

In 2005, we are going to concentrate our efforts in four areas:
1. Thoroughly carry out the policy of subsidizing and supporting students from poor families. In compulsory education, we are going to accomplish the provision of free textbooks to 24 million students from low-income families, and urge the local governments to fulfill their responsibility of "One exemption and One Subsidy" (exemption of miscellaneous fee and subsidy for boarding). In higher education, we are going to implement new policies concerning state student loan in full scale, and improve management of the state student loan funding and carry out policies on work-study programs, special aids, tuition exemption, etc.
2. Vigorously strengthen school security, explore new mechanisms to achieve this goal, further improve the surroundings of schools and refine the Internet service, so as to provide a better environment for the healthy growth of young students.
3. Spare no effort in facilitating employment of college graduates. The number of college graduates in 2005 is estimated to total 3.38 million, a 20.71 percent increase over that of 2004. This calls for more intensified efforts in this regard.
4. Continue to strengthen the efforts against random charges of schools and work on rectifying the working style of the Party and building an honest and clean government in the education sector. "One Fee for All" will be introduced to all schools of compulsory education nationwide. The policy of "Three Limits" will be applied to high schools to regulate their behaviors in enrolling students from non-designated area. Efforts will continue to be made in controlling tuition charge standard and behaviors in higher education. We will vigorously carry out the "Sunshine Project" in the student recruitment process for higher education to ensure openness and transparency as well as efficient supervision by the public and public opinion.

Another important and strategic task for the Ministry of Education in 2005 is to conduct research and draft the "Outline for the Development of China's Education 2020". In the Outline, we will define and lay out the fundamentals for educational reform and development, and frame a blueprint for a modern educational system with Chinese characteristics by taking as guidance the scientific viewpoints to development, following the requirements raised by building an all-rounded well-off society and implementing the strategy of reinvigorating the country through science and education and the strategy of strengthening the nation through skilled manpower.

 


 

 

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